Retaining wall is a type of wall which is used to avert erosion of soil and protect a building against the forces of nature. There are many ways to do this. Some of these include cantilever retaining walls, sheet pile retaining walls and Geocell retaining walls.
Cantilever retaining walls
Cantilever retaining walls are an intrusive structure that uses concrete to stabilize the ground below. They are generally used at elevations 10 ft to 25 ft. The retaining wall may not be able perform its intended function if the soil is not suitable for the design. Check out more about adelaide northern fencing.
Because of the lateral earth pressure acting upon the wall, it can cause it to tip over. As a result, it is important to design a cantilever retaining wall to withstand the pressures. The following tips will help you design one safely.
A cantilever retaining wall is made up of two basic parts: the heel and the toe. The heel is embedded in the soil, and is part of the base of the wall. It provides stability and weighs the wall.
The toe is the part of the base slab that is arranged below the backfill material. The toe is the most important part of the wall and is subject to upward and downward pressures from soil.
The stem of the cantilever wall retaining wall is also critical. It is responsible for both shear as well as bending forces. The stem may be made of either concrete or masonry. It is also subject to shear and bending forces.
It is important to consider the bearable capacity when designing a cantilever wall. This is a measure of the maximum amount of load that can be supported by the wall. A cantilever retaining walls should be designed to withstand the following types of failures:
The first step in designing a cantilever wall retaining wall is to determine its height. It may be necessary to add space above the wall depending on the slope of your soil. It will need to be cleared if it is more than two meters high.
The next step in designing a cantilever retaining wall is to calculate the force needed to keep the wall stable. The forces are determined by calculating the resisting moments and frictional forces. These can be calculated by using the appropriate IS codes.
Sheet pile retaining wall
During excavation works, a sheet pile retaining wall is used to support and hold back the surrounding soil. Besides, it is also used as a shoring system to protect adjacent structures from damage. It is cost-effective for ground conditions that are difficult.
Sheet pile walls are often constructed from metal sheets, but they can also be made from timber, steel, and vinyl. You can combine the materials with the appropriate interlocks to make a wall.
This type of retaining walls is used in railway embankments, commercial service yards, and flood defense wall. It is also common in coastal barriers.
Sheet piling is designed for resistance to soil pressures, both active and passive. For instance, a factor of safety of 1.0 is used for both active and passive pressures. However, it is important to note that the retaining wall is not intended to address the stability of stream slopes.
Hydrostatic pressure will be created if the water level is lower than the bank. Consequently, the sheet pile will be forced outward by this pressure. Moreover, if the water level falls rapidly, the pile will be forced outward faster.
The most common type of material for sheet piles is steel. Steel is considered as the best material for large bending and pressure forces. Nevertheless, reinforced concrete sheet piles are also used successfully.
The design of sheet piles is based on the concept of shear resistance. In general, U-shaped and Z shaped profiles are used.
The maximum length of a sheet pile is 6.892 metres. Alternately, the sheet pile can be as long 9 meters. Typically, the minimum embedment depth is 26.5 feet.
The sheet pile is then driven into the ground with a hammer during installation. Using the right size impact hammer is essential. Similarly, the pile should not be driven more than eight inches out of plumb.
After the sheet pile has been placed, it is time to install a capping beam. The toes of the piles should be cut with an oblique front. These features make it easier to drive and allow the sheet piles to flex without damaging walls.
Anchored retaining walls
A retaining wall is a structure that supports soil laterally and prevents it shifting down the slope. It can also be used to control stormwater runoff and reduce erosion. Most retaining walls are made from wood, steel, and vinyl. These walls can be constructed on-site or in a factory. Look out for landscapers adelaide.
Anchored retaining walls function by using deep cable rods and cables in the backfill to resist the active pressure of the earth. The cable rods are pushed sideways into the soil, and are then filled with concrete to form a “anchor”. This anchor keeps the wall in place.
Sheet pile retaining walls are another method of constructing an anchored retaining wall. They can be made from a variety of materials, including aluminum, wood, and steel. Their advantage is their rigidity.
Sheet pile retaining walls are often reinforced with vertical corrugations. They are a low cost, flexible solution for reshaping slopes. They are not recommended for use on very soft soils or can’t withstand high pressure.
Anchored retaining walls are ideal for small spaces, such as backyards and gardens. These walls can be constructed in any style, and they can also be used to enhance the terrain.
Anchored retaining walls are also commonly used for basement structures. An anchored retaining wall is typically one-third the length and height of the structure. A sheet pile retaining wall typically has a height of six meters.
Gabions are another type of anchored wall. Gabions are soil-filled cages used in civil engineering and military applications. In addition, they are frequently used as free-draining retaining structures.
Using anchored retaining walls can be a cost-effective way to enhance your outdoor space and backyard. They are also suitable for construction projects, such as sloping soil maintenance and slope creation. These retaining walls are easy to install and offer other benefits such as increased safety and reduced maintenance.
An anchored retaining walls is especially useful when loose soil is piled on top of rocks. For this reason, it is often used in building sites or in construction.
Geocell retaining wall
The geocell retaining wall is a flexible reinforced retaining wall that is based on the concept of cellular confinement systems. This system provides a highly efficient load transfer between interconnected cells. It also offers an all-round confinement effect, and enables vegetation to grow.
Geocell retaining walls are extremely resistant to earthquakes, and have a structural stability of under self-weight. As a result, it is often used in areas with high seismic risk. To understand how the geocell retaining wall responds to different frequencies and accelerations, a number of lab and field tests have been conducted.
The maximum vertical displacement of a 6-m high retaining wall was 56mm in a sinusoidal wave at 7 Hz. Similarly, horizontal displacements reached the minimum value at a height of 1.8 m. However, this is still a large displacement and could cause economic losses.
These types of retaining walls can be constructed in different configurations, and it depends on the project site soil conditions and the aesthetics of the completed site. Concrete may be required in certain applications.
Another type of retaining wall that is made with gravel geocells is the one above. While this does not alter the vertical deformations of the wall, it is not expected to change the seismic performance.
Geocell retaining walls have been constructed using a variety of combinations of geocell and geogrid. These combinations can vary in the amount and type of gravel used. Moreover, there are many other infill materials.
The geocell retaining walls have excellent tensile strength but are not as resilient as unreinforced walls. It is able to compensate the soil’s weak tensile strengths.
An alternative to geocell retaining walls is the geocomposite retaining wall. This wall is made up of layers of geotextiles, and geosynthetic Earth reinforcement layers. A biaxial geogrid is often applied at the base to the wall.
These retaining walls are different from the geocell retaining walls in that they have facing. This is an irregularly layered structure, which prevents sliding movement at the base of the wall.